The village was first mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086 and spelt as Turulfestorp. It was later described as a resting and watering place for Drovers with their cattle on their way from the north to York.

The Grade 2 listed 'Old Farm House' was built in 1790 and overlooks the Village Green, with its large pond. The Enclosure Act was enforced in 1800.

The Village School on a corner of the Green was built in 1898 and extended in 1908. The Methodist Chapel was built in 1844 and extended in 1894. In 1913, Kelly's Register states, the average attendence was 38 and there are 16 Farmers, 2 Innkeepers and one each of Grocer, Cobbler, Blacksmith, Joiner, Butcher and Tailor. At this time a humpback bridge over Derrings Beck carried the road to Raskelf and the north. This was replaced in the late 1950's.

The Churchwardens's records states 101 cart loads of gravel for the upkeep of the roads should be carted from the village pit (on the north side of Ten Mile Hill) by the farmers in proportion to the number of acres farmed.

In 1939 an area of land was requisitioned by the War Department, between Raskelf Road and Carle House for a grass airfield. All trees and hedges were bulldozed, as were 2 farmsteads (The Grange and Benson's Farm). Twin engined Whitley Bombers of 77, 78 and 102 RAF squadrons operated from the airfield in conjunction with RAF Linton-on-Ouse. On 24th October 1940 a Nazi night fighter attacked a Whitley Bomber shortly after take off over the village - it was brought down just north of Alne Station.

The airfield proved to small and wet for the heavy 4 engined Halifax Bombers which were becoming available so it was closed to be brought up to class A standard with 3 runways, 3 hangers and all the required supporting infrastructure. It reopened in 1943 with 431 Iroquois and 434 Bluenose squadrons who were later replaced by 420 Snowy Owl and 425 Alouette squadrons (all from the Canadian Airforce). The wider roadside verges became stores for larger HE bombs and ammunition.

I the late 1970's a singular cellular organism 'Euglena Sanguinia' grew on the village pond which caused much interest as responded to light by turning bright red in sunshine and then reverting to green after sunset. The Willow trees by the pond were planted in 1976 to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee in 1977.

The avenue of Oaks and Maples between the village and the airfield were planted in 1987 in preparation for the unveiling of the RCAF Memorial on the Village Green in memory of the 119 aircraft and 500 aircrew who lost their lives after taking off from Tholthorpe Airfield.

Sadly the village shop and post office closed in 1993.

In 1995 the first annual Tholthorpe 10k race was held - this raises funds for the Village Hall. 

In 1998 a memorial plaque was unvieled on the old Control Tower which is now a private residence.